Abduction- Moving or
pushing an arm or leg away from
Achilles Tendon- The
strong tendon joining the muscles
in the calf of the leg to the bone
in the heel.
Inflammation of the Achilles
Acute- Symptoms that are
severe and/or brief in duration.
Adduction- Moving or
pulling an arm or leg toward the
median line in the body.
joining of parts to each other,
usually by scar tissue.
Anatomical- Knit to
accommodate the contours of the
from a straight line, as in a
badly set bone.
Anterior- The front
Anterior Cruciate Ligament-
The ligament that travels from the
medial border of the lateral
femoral condyle to its point of
insertion anterolaterally to the
medial tibial spine.
Anterior Drawer- In
reference to the knee, movement of
the tibia forward beyond normal
limits. Often referred to as
"drawer sign", this
assists clinicians in determining
injury to the ACL.
Appendage- A part or
Anterior/Posterior laxity, also
known as anterior tibial
translation, when the tibia shifts
Arthroscopy- A procedure
carried out with an arthroscope.
An arthroscope is an instrument
with a system of lenses and lights
that enables a surgeon to view the
inside of a joint. It is used most
often to study the knee joint.
Arthroscopy reveals abnormalities
inside the joint.
Arthrosis- A line of
juncture between bones. A
degenerative disease of a joint.
surgically open a joint.
Articular- Of or
relating to a joint.
Cartilage that cover the articular
surfaces of the bone.
Articulation- Where two
bones meet to form a joint.
Atrophy- Wasting away of
any part, organ, tissue or cell.
Avulsion Fracture- A
small portion of bone, with
ligament or tendon attached, is
pulled away from the main bone
Stretches horizontally and
Bilateral- Pertaining to
two sides of the body.
Biomechanics- The field
of study which makes use of the
laws of physics and engineering
concepts to describe motion of
body segments, and the forces
which act upon them during
Bursa- A small serous
sac between a tendon and a bone.
tissue sacks over bony prominences
which facilitate movement by
of the bursa, especially of the
shoulder or elbow.
Calcaneus- The heel
Abnormal hardening of soft tissue,
usually from repeated injury.
Callus- A thickening of
or a hard thickened area on the
A nerve disorder that causes pain,
loss of feeling and loss of
strength in the hands.
fibrous, dense connective tissue-
harder than ligaments, softer than
bone. Cartilage usually is found
between bones and permits smooth
movement of joints. The most
frequent and significant cartilage
injury associated with athletic is
damage to the crescent-shaped
cartilage in the knee (meniscus).
Cast- A stiff dressing
or casing made of dressing
impregnated with plastic if Paris
or other hardening material such
as plastic. Casts are used to
immobilize various parts of the
body in cases or fractures,
dislocations, and moderate or
Cerebral Palsy- A
disability resulting from damage
to the brain before or during
Chondral- Pertaining to
Knee)- Aching pain behind the
kneecap. Pain begins and
progresses slowly. It appears in
healthy, athletically active young
Chronic- The opposite of
acute. Chronic means prolonged or
slow to heal.
Clavicle- A bone that
links the scapula and sternum.
Collagen- A protein
chemical substance that is the
main support of skin, tendon,
bone, cartilage and connective
Compression- The act of
pressing or squeezing together.
Compromise Axis of Rotation-
The point at which the femur
rotates around the vast majority
of the time.
Condyle- An articular
prominence of a bone.
Congenital- Existing at
Connective Tissue- the
bodyís supporting framework of
tissue consisting of strands of
collagen, elastic fibers between
muscles and around muscle groups
and blood vessels, and simple
or distortion of a tissue, usually
Contusion- A bruising
injury that does not break the
Corn- A local hardening
and thickening of epidermis
Degenerative Joint Disease-
Frequently results from
neuropathy, or nerve damage, in
the feet which can lead to a
dulling or loss of sensation,
making one unable to feel pain,
heat or cold; Viscoped should be
worn only in non-ulcerative cases.
displacement of one or more bones
at a joint.
from the normal position or place.
Distal- Distant from a
midline or other point of
reference. The opposite of distal
Dorsal- Referring to the
back of an object.
bending, especially of the hand or
development, degeneration of
Edema- Accumulation of
abnormal quantities of fluid in
spaces between the cells of the
body. Edema can accumulate in
almost any location in the body.
Most common sites include the feet
accumulation of fluid in a joint.
Epicondyles- Any of
several prominences on the distal
part of a long bone serving for
the attachment of muscles and
Inflammation of muscles, tendons,
bursa, or periosteum (covering to
bones) at the elbow; may be medial
or later epicondylitis.
Etiology- The cause of a
disease or injury.
Eversion- To turn
Exostosis- A piling up
of bone at the site of a new or
repeat injury, usually caused by
Extension- An unbending
movement around a joint in a limb
that increases the angle between
the bones of the limb at the
Extensor- A muscle
serving to extend a bodily part.
Rotation of a body segment away
from the midling of the body.
Extremities- Arms and
Fascia- A thick band of
Fat Pad Atrophy- Also
known by "thinning of the fat
pad", this condition is
characterized by a decrease in the
size, or wasting away of the layer
of body fat that is normally
present to protect the metatarsal
phalangeal heads; can also occur
in the heel.
Femoral Condyles- The
distal end of the femur that joins
to the knee.
Femur- The longest and
largest bone of the human body, it
extends from the hip to the knee.
Fibrosis- The formation
of fibrous tissue. Fibrosis is
caused by many factors including
injury, inflammation and
inflammatory condition affecting
connective tissue and muscles,
joints, ligaments and tendons.
Fibrositis has many causes,
including repeated injury,
infections or overuse of a part.
Fibula- The lateral calf
bone originating at the knee and
extending to the ankle. The distal
end forms the lateral malleolus.
immobilization of the parts of a
Flat Knit- A knitting
technique whereby the product
comes off the machines in one
contoured sheet. Pieces are sewn
together and therefore they have a
Flexion- A bending
movement around a joint in a limb
that decreases the angle between
the bones of the limb at the
Flexor- A muscle serving
to bend a body part.
Fracture- A break in a
bone, cartilage, tooth or other
rigid bone tissue.
Frontal Plane- Referring
to surfaces of the body past the
midline of the body, of the front.
to the connection of the glenoid
cavity (shallow cavity in the
shoulder) and the humerus (the
longest bone in the upper arm).
Grade I Ankle Sprain-
Stretching and slight or partial
tearing of one or more ligaments
in the ankle.
Grade II Ankle Sprain-
Stretching and partial tearing of
one or more ligaments of the
ankle, resulting in weakening and
some loss of ankle function.
Grade III Ankle Sprain-
A severe injury to the ankle in
which one or more ligaments are
stretched and totally torn. A
severe sprain may include a
temporary or lasting dislocation.
When the tightness of a support is
decreased at the edges.
Haglundís Deformity (Pump
Bump)- Caused from a calcium
buildup due to repeated irritation
to the Achilles tendon at its
insertion point to the calcaneus.
This used to be common in women
who wore high heels.
Hamstrings- Refers to
the three major muscles which are
located on the posterior side of
the thigh. These muscles function
as flexors of the knee.
Heel Bursitis- Formation
in the heel area of an irritated
or inflamed protective sac of
fluid due to irritation caused by
a heel spur.
Heel Spur- A hard bony
shelf as wide as the width of the
heelbone caused by repeated
pulling away of periosteum from
the heelbone (calcaneous). The
repeated stress or injury causes
inflammation and calcification of
tendons and ligaments in the foot.
weakness or partial paralysis
restricted to one side of the
High Tibial Osteotomy- A
procedure that is indicated in
relatively young patients who have
unicompartmental degeneration with
relative sparing of the
patellofemoral joint. The
procedure corrects varus deformity
of the knee by removal of a wedge
of bone from the lateral side of
Horizontal Plane- A
plane which lies in a crosswise
Humerus- The longest
bone of the upper arm extending
from the shoulder to the elbow.
extend so that the angle between
bones of a joint is greater than
Thickening of the outer layer of
skin. It may occur as an inherited
disorder, affecting the soles of
development of an organ or part;
increase in bulk as by thickening
of muscle fibers.
Immobilize- To fix so as
to reduce or eliminate motion.
Incision- A cut made
with a sharp instrument through
the skin or other tissue.
Indication- A symptom or
condition that indicates a
necessity of a specific medical
treatment or procedure.
Inferior- Situated below
and closer to the feet than
Inflammation- A response
from an injury that may be
characterized by redness, heat,
pain, swelling and loss of
Rotation of a body part towards
the midline of the body.
Inversion- To turn
Joint Capsule- The thin,
cartilagenous, fatty, fibrous,
membranous structure that envelops
a joint. Fluid inside the joint
capsule lubricates the area,
allowing bones to glide smoothly
against each other.
Kinematic- Of or
pertaining to motion.
Lateral- Toward the
outside or away from a midline.
Lateral Collateral Ligament-
The ligament that runs from the
lateral femoral condyle to the
fibular head in the knee.
Ligament- A band of
fibrous tissue that connects bone
to bone or cartilage to bone,
supporting or strengthening a
Lumbar- Relating to the
lower back region.
Luxation- Bones in a
joint that are no longer in the
correct functional position to
each other. Means the same as
or imperfect alignment.
Malleolus- The rounded
projection on the ankle, on both
sides- lateral and medial.
Mechanical Low Back Pain-
Low back pain originating from the
disc, vertebral body, or posterior
elements or might be unrelated to
the spine. The most common cause
is a lumbar strain after lifting
or twisting event or without known
Medial- Toward the
midline or closest to a midline
than any other structure.
Medial Collateral Ligament-
Refers to the restraint structure
at the innermost portion (side) of
the knee joint. Resists excessive
Meniscus- The crescent
shaped cartilage between the femur
Metatarsal- The part of
the foot between the tarsus and
Metatarsalgia- A general
term for irritation of the
metatarsals; aching pain in the
metatarsal bones of the foot
result from anatomical changes in
Mortonís Neuroma- An
irritation that is caused by
compression of a branch of the
plantar nerve between the heads of
the metatarsal bones and sometimes
occurs when the second toe is
larger than the big toe.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance
Imaging)- Special radiological
study that allows visualization of
scarred or damaged areas of the
Muscle- An organ that
produces movement by contractions.
There are two major kinds of
muscles: voluntary (striated) and
Striated muscles are under
voluntary control and include most
of the muscles of the body.
Relating to both musculature and
Refers to the point at which
tendon meets muscle.
Necrosis- Death. Tissue
death (necrosis) results from
deprivation of blood supply.
Nerve Palsy- Weakness or
failure due to injury of a nerve;
it is usually short term, but
immediate support is necessary.
not "bottom-out"; will
return to original shape.
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Osteochronrosis)-
"Growing pain" at the
knee, a temporary condition
affecting adolescents who exercise
vigorously. The powerful
quadriceps muscles of the thigh
attach to the tibia at a growth
zone, a relatively vulnerable area
of bone. Pain, tenderness and
swelling occur at this point with
Joint Disease)- Arthritis of
middle age characterized by
degenerative and sometimes
hypertrophic changes in the bone
and cartilage of one or more
joints and a progressive wearing
down of opposing joint surfaces
with consequent distortion of
joint positioning usually without
condition characterized by
softening of the bones. Symptoms
include pain, tenderness, muscle
weakness and weight loss. The
cause is a deficiency in vitamin D
Osteoporosis- Loss of
normal bone density, mass and
strength, leading to increased
porousness and vulnerability to
Patella- The triangular
movable bone that protects the
Patella tracking- Refers
to the path that the patella
follows within the trochlear notch
as in a pully system.
Patellar Tendon- The
tendon extending from the patella
and attaching at the tibial crest
Periosteum- The membrane
of connective tissue that closely
enfolds all bones except at the
Plantar- Relating to the
sole of the foot.
Plantar fasciitis- A
partial or complete tear in the
fascia (fibrous connective tissue)
of the bottom of the foot. It is
characterized by pain just under
the heel bone.
Plantar Flexion- Bending
or pointing the toe toward the
Popliteal Region- The
space behind the knee joint. The
space is bounded by ligaments and
contains soft tissue including
nerves, fat, membranes and blood
Popliteal Space- The
posterior aspect of the knee
Posterior- The rear
Posterior Cruciate Ligament-
This ligament prevents posterior
subluxation of the tibia on the
femur. It runs between the lateral
aspect of the medial femoral
condyle to it point of insertion
below the joint line on the
posterior aspect of the tibia.
Abnormal motion of the tibia back
on the femur as the knee flexes,
Posterior Tibial Dysfunction-
A failure of the posterior tibial
tendon; this tendon provides lift
to the foot and ankle; when this
occurs, the foot tends to pronate.
Posting- A wedge, either
medial or lateral.
Pronation- Rotation of a
body part (usually the hand or
foot) backward, inward or
that helps prevent against injury.
awareness of a part of the body.
artificial device to replace a
missing part of the body.
Proximal- Nearest to a
point of reference. The opposite
of proximal is distal.
Quadriceps- Refers to
the muscles on the anterior
portion of the thigh which extends
Radius- The bone on the
thumb side of the human forearm.
Rheumatoid Arthritis- A
usually chronic disease that is of
unknown cause and is characterized
by pain, stiffness, inflammation,
swelling and sometimes destruction
Rotator Cuff- A
structure around the
shoulder-joint capsule composed of
intermingled muscle and tendon
fibers. The rotator cuff provides
stability and strength to the
tearing or disruption of a tissue.
Very common with expectant mothers
where joint "seizes up"
from irritation; very painful and
leads to muscle spasm.
Sagittal Plane- The
median plane of the body which
divides it into two equal halves.
Screw Home Mechanism-
Refers to a normal phenomenon
which occurs during the final ten
degrees of knee extension. A
combination of extension and
external rotation of the tibia.
Caused from rapid growth in
children; the muscles and tendons
cannot keep up with the growth
rate of the bone.
Separation- The act or
process of separating (to become
Shear Loading- The
application of a load parallel to
Soft Tissue- All tissue
of the body except bone.
Splayfoot- A condition
in which the feet are abnormally
Splint- A rigid support
made from metal, plaster or
plastic and used to immobilize an
injured or inflamed part of the
Sprain- A sudden or
violent twist or wrench of a joint
causing the stretching or twisting
of ligaments and often rupture of
blood vessels with hemorrhage to
Stabilize- To become
stable or steady.
Abnormal motion along a single
plane (i.e. anterior/posterior,
Strain- The amount of
deformation the material
experiences per unit of original
length in response to stress.
Stress- The force that a
materials subjected to per unit of
dislocation (as of one of the
bones in a joint).
toward the head and further away
from the feet than another.
Supination- Rotating a
hand or foot outward on its long
axis. The movement is done with
the muscles in the forearm or
Synovial Fluid- A fluid
within the joint which assists in
lubrication and nutrition of the
of the synovium, often a
complication of an injury, such as
a fracture, or of collagen
Synovium- A thin layer
of connective tissue with a free
smooth surface that lines the
capsule of a joint. Synovial fluid
lubricates and facilitates
movement of the joint.
Talus- Where the tibia
and fibula joint to form the ankle
joint, the entire ankle.
of a tendon.
Tendon- A fibrous cord
by which a muscle is attached to a
Tendon Sheath- A
synovial sheath covering a tendon
(as in the hand or foot).
Inflammation of tendon sheath.
of softening when heated to change
shape and hardening when cooled to
in such a way as to have more than
Tibia- The inner and
larger of the two bones of the leg
between the knee and ankle.
Tibial Tubercle- A bony
prominence on the anterior side of
the tibia which serves as an
attachment point for the patellar
Divides the body in a horizontal
Tubercle- A prominence
on a bone.
Tubular knit- A knitting
technique whereby the product
comes off the machines as a tube
therefore there are no seams.
Ulna- The bone on the
little-finger side of the forearm
that forms with the humerus and
serves as a pivot in rotation of
Unhappy triad- A tear of
the anterior cruciate ligament,
medial collateral ligament and
Pertaining to one side.
Valgus- Turned outward
away from the midline of the body.
Varus- Bending or
turning inward towards the midline
of the body.
Vertebral Column- Spinal
column; the series of vertebrae
connected by ligaments.
Vertical Plane- A plane
separating right from left.
Viscoelastic- A shock
absorbing rubber-like material.
Window Edema- When
swelling finds the path of least